others being formal education, adult study programs, on-the-job health services).*
In contrast, most sociologists are predisposed by their train different perspective. Inclined as they are to the use of ideal-t} omies (e.g., traditional-modern, folk-urban, Gemeinshcaft-Gese city is seen in negative terms because it is characterized by what small community is not. If the small community is said to be cha cultural homogeneity, primary interpersonal contacts, and soc then, by definition, the city must be described in opposite terms for one thing, that rural-urban migration is conceived of nega and personal disorganization must inevitably accompany the rr large city because of the very different environment encountered
Another important reason why some social scientists find so< zation in the city is that they do not examine a representative city's population but restrict themselves to certain groups. Con sweeping indictment (3):
The most conspicuous symptom of the contemporary dis happened to urbanisation in the developing areas. Every stu opment is aware of the global spread of urban slums—froi Caracas and favellas of Rio, to Vnegecekondu of Ankara, to t and "tin can cities" that infest the metropolitan centres of e ing country from Cairo to Manila.
The point that must be stressed in referring to this suff humanity displaced from the rural areas to the filthy peri] great cities, is that few of them experience the "transition" tural to urban-industrial labour called for by the mechanisi ment and the model of modernisation. They are neither trained, nor employed, nor serviced. They languish on the ur without entering into any productive relationship with its inc tions. These are the "displaced persons," the DPs, of the c process as it now typically occurs in most of the world, a h and jetsam that has been displaced from traditional agricult out being incorporated into modern industrial life.
Lerner's initial problem of "what happened to urbanisation' to an exclusive concern with the "filthy peripheries" of cities. '. that migrants from rural areas cannot find employment in the center. The bias of the economist, in contrast, is to assume tha in response to economic opportunity and that they do find w pose here in contrasting these perspectives is not to maintain til and the other is wrong but to show how certain deep-seated fezucio G., "The Price and Production Duality within Argentine